Also see the list of Article Collections (to which essays on this list are now linked) and the Bibliography of Primary Sources. According to the author’s abstract, “This paper shows how Wyclif is able at the same time (i) to claim that whatever is is a proposition (‘pan-propositionalism’) and (ii) to develop a nontrivial theory of propositional truth and falsity. [Gray returns to this important Carthusian manuscript for a full discussion of the relationships among its images and lyrics, and its relevance to the “spiritual landscape of late medieval England” (116).] Green, Richard F. [Argues that the odd juxtaposition in Purvey’s Heresies and Errors (as recorded by Lavenham) of a discussion of the marriage of those linked in spiritual affinity (godparents) with the question of whether bastards can inherit the throne can be explained by the situation surrounding John of Gaunt’s marriage to Katherine Swynford and his ambitions for the Beauforts (his illegitimate children by Katherine) in 1396. In at least one notable case, the mid-fourteenth century reforms of Archbishop Thoresby, York identified the problems and found the solutions before Lollardy existed. advance an alternative orthodox position, one that identifies points of consensus, rather than disagreement, with lollard critiques. 1384) is that of the inflexible reformer whose views of the Church were driven by a strict determinism which divided humanity into two eternally fixed categories of the predestined and the damned. Special attention is given to collaboration with German-speaking editors, despite contemporary political tensions, and their contrasting editorial methods.] Spinka, Matthew. To a certain extent Wyclif ‘s explanations fit in with Aristotle’s understanding of language. Since these bibliographies are meant to be complete listings of texts and studies relevant to Wycliffism, please let us know of any new references which should be included. The study has two parts: 1) Starting from Wyclif’s fivefold propositional typology—including a propositio realis (real proposition) and a sic esse sicut propositio significat (a fact)—we will analyse (a) the three different kinds of real predication, (b) the distinction between primary and secondary signification of propositions (the latter being an instantiation of the former) and (c) the status of logical truth as opposed to (but depending on) metaphysical truth. “John Ball’s Letters: Literary History and Historical Literature.” Hanawalt 176-200. This shows that Lollard influence on Gaunt, or at least on his extended household, lasted longer than has sometimes been supposed.] Green, Samuel Gosnell. Heresy was but one response to what were perceived as problems of the late Medieval spirituality; the church of York offered its own response to those problems. The article includes extensive discussion of the cross and its relation to affective devotion.] Harper-Bill, Christopher. In point of fact, however, Wyclif’s understanding of salvation is quite nuanced and well worth careful study.” The purpose of Levy’s essay, in which he considers earlier work by Lechler, Robson, and Kenny, “is to offer a full appraisal of Wyclif’s soteriology in its many facets. of such doctrine from Wyclif’s Latin works to the vernacular records of fifteenth-century heresy trials, we may perhaps gain a little insight into how certain men and women, from East Anglia and Kent, sought to theorize the business of love and marriage in light of a version of Christianity which combined a strong predestinarian impulse with a strict puritanism in sexual matters” (190). Aristotle recognises that we can talk about substances in many different ways; we can introduce them by using ‘substantial’ names, but also by using names derived from the substances’ accidental features. [Steiner concentrates on the so-called “Long” and “Short Charters of Christ.” She argues that “late medieval preachers and polemicists used documents, both fictive and real, to challenge orthodox notions of textual authority and to produce an oppositional rhetoric. Finally: included because they are the best, or even because they are right. “After Arundel: The Closing or the Opening of the English Mind? [Refuting the claim that Arundel’s Constitutions muted England’s intellectual culture in the fifteenth century, Catto argues that “there is abundant evidence of vitality on the part of the educated laity and their largely monastic suppliers of spiritual instruction.” He considers the shift away from speculative theology in light of a larger continental tradition and discusses Parisian influences on Lancastrian literature.] Catto, Jeremy, Pamela Gradon, and Anne Hudson. Furthermore, the notion of ens logicum (as intermediate between statements and facts) will be compared to Walter Burley’s propositio in re of which it appears to be a close analogon. “‘And my boonus had dried vp as critouns’: The History of the Translation of Psalm 101.4.” . The city of York was more proactive than reactive, preventing heresy from taking hold in the city or diocese by presenting an actively reforming church.”] Gregory, D. “The Preachers’s Reading of Early English Literature.” 35.2 (2000): 204-222. This means that we will first discuss the related questions of divine will and human freedom, and their impact upon his soteriology. Minnis considers Sir Lewis Clifford, William White, Wyclif (the ), Netter, and Pecock in his discussion.] —. The substances are the ultimate foundation of all these expressions. It would be a foolish student who referred to (for instance) Gairdner’s century-old study of “Lollardy and the Reformation” for accurate knowledge about the movement. La doctrine eucharistique de Jean Wyclif.” Brocchieri and Simonetta 87-112. “The Hungarian-speaking Hussites of Moldavia and Two English Episodes in their History.” 4.1 (May 2006): 3-24. 2) The second part deals with two semantic and metaphysical implications of the ‘pan-propositionalism’: (a) the extended notion of being (ampliatio entis) called upon to explain the truth of so-called non-standard propositions (e.g. “From Sacred Mystery to Divine Deception: Robert Holkot, John Wyclif and the Transformation of Fourteenth-Century Eucharistic Discourse.” 29.2 (2005): 129-44. [“Credulity,” or “the gullibility of an unletters populace” about the “controlling rhetoric of the church,” is a recurrent them in Marsilio of Padua, William of Ockham, and John Wyclif. Then we will examine his views on sin, grace, merit, justification, faith, and predestination, all within the larger medieval context. “Wyclif’s Eden: Sex, Death, and Dominion.” Bose and Hornbeck 59-78. This idea in itself is not opposed to a conceptualist account of language. These older studies are included here for those interested in the history of the study of Wycliffism, not for the study of Wycliffism itself. [According to the abstract, “The article considers the origin of the Hungarian-speaking Hussites in Moldavia and the factors that led to their growth, together with the nature of their beliefs. past, future, modal) and (b) the relation between contents of the divine mind as ‘arch-truth-makers’ and eternal as well as contingent truths.”] —. [This paper examines Wyclif’s critique of medieval Eucharistic theology in light of fourteenth-century debates about the possibility of and consequences of divine deception. “English Books In and Out of Court from Edward III to Henry VII.” . Cornelius Mayer, Willigis Eckermann, and Coelestin Patock. “In their attack on official discourse, on its tendency to conceal and confuse, these writers open up more generally the issue of language and authority. “Church, Society, and Politics in the Early Fifteenth Century as Viewed from the English Pulpit.” 72.4 (Fall, 2007): 59.71. Peter Partridge and MS Digby 98.” Barr and Hutchinson 41-65. What we should find is that Wyclif’s soteriology makes a good deal of room for human free will, albeit in cooperation with divine grace. [This essay analyzes De statu innocencie, a speculative treatise Wyclif wrote about the condition of humanity in Eden. John Buridan uses Aristotle’s principle of categorisation to show how language works, but for him the activity of categorising things is to be explained in terms of our mental activities only. Harrison Thomson on the Bibliography of Primary Sources under the Works of John Wyclif.] Steiner, Emily. Start instead with Hudson’s 1988 study of Thomas Netter as a Resource for Contemporary Theology.” Bergström-Allen and Copsey 335-361. “Christ’s Humanity and Piers Plowman: Contexts and Political Implications.” Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2000. “The Sacrament of the Altar in Piers Plowman and the Late Medieval Church in England.” Dimmick, Simpson, and Zeeman 63-80. We must not begin our reading of the poem with the assumption that to set aside the dominant, orthodox representation of the sacrament of the altar is to set aside sacramental theology and the sacrament of the alter–even if that is what orthodox polemic was not claiming” (65, 67).] —. The developments that led to their eventual demise are discussed. Language exists as a material reality because it is a form of social behavior” (1). “Intentionality and Truth-Making: Augustine’s Influence on Burley and Wyclif’s Propositional Semantics.” 45 (2007): 283-97. Throughout , Wyclif rejects the doctrine of transubstantiation because it seems to turn God into a liar. “The Lollards’ Threefold Biblical Agenda.” Bose and Hornbeck 211-226. “University College, Oxford, MS 97 and its Relationship to the Simeon Manuscript (British Library Add. At once constituting heterodoxy and masking it, their discussions of credulity urge a great public awareness of discourse and provide a rhetoric to that end.” Grudin concludes the article with a discussion of credulity in several Canterbury tales.] Gurevich, Aaron. [“This article discusses the difficulty in teaching and translating works by authors Margery Kempe and Julian of Norwich. “English Biblical Texts Before Lollardy and their Fate.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 141-53. [On Partridge’s “Notebook,” describing the contents of the manuscript and how it reveals his turn towards “favouring heretical, Lollard opinions” (44).] —. Furthermore, we will see that Wyclif most often presents a God who is at once just and merciful, extending grace and the possibility of salvation to all” (279-80). “John Wyclif: Christian Patience in a Time of War.” 66.2 (June 2005): 330-357. Minnis characterizes its subject matter as a typical subject of inquiry for scholastic theologians and often compares Wyclif’s views on bodily pleasure, death, and dominion to Aquinas’ writings.] Moessner, Lilo. Wyclif, on the other hand, reads much into the requirement that all our linguistic distinctions should have their basis in extramental reality: our conceptualisations not only pertain to individual substances, but also parallel their distinct ontic layers.”] Spufford, P. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2005. [Stanbury situates Chaucer’s representation of images within the Lollard image debate.] —. Katherine, Knighton’s Lollards, and the Breaking of Idols.” Dimmick, Simpson, and Zeeman 131-50. How [Stanbury asks] was the drama of the image shaped by contemporary discourses about images as 46.1 (2015): 249-76. “Inventing Legality: Documentary Culture and Lollard Preaching.” .
The Secondary Sources are not subdivided by discipline because it has proven impossible to find categories which do anything but confuse rather than clarify the content of the sources. For more help, see Pitard, “A Selected Bibliography for Lollard Studies,” indexed under “Bibliographies and Indices” on the Bibliography of Primary Sources. Lollardy appears in the circle of readers around Margery de Nerford. Considering trends in scholarship on religious orthodoxy, the history of late medieval England, and the history of late medieval Europe, he proposes directions for future research.] —. 1663) show these women refashioning the courtroom audience into a congregation responsive to their clerical skills. [According to Ghosh, “one of the main reasons for Lollardy’s sensational resonance for its times, and for its immediate posterity, was its exposure of fundamental problems in late-medieval academic engagement with the Bible, its authority and its polemical uses. “Logic, Scepticism, and ‘Heresy’ in Early-Fifteenth Century Europe: Oxford, Vienna, Constance.” Denery, Ghosh, and Zeeman 261-83. “Wyclif and the Independence of the Church in England.” 95-119. “The Mole in the Vineyard: Wyclif at Syon in the Fifteenth Century.” Barr and Hutchinson 129-62. In fact, he thought certain texts were quite sound, and he conceded that the pope does have the right to pass laws for the good of the Church, providing that such statutes are in keeping with Holy Scripture. ” Erasing Oldcastle: Some Literary Reactions to the Lollard Rising of 1414.” . “A Wycliffite Bible Possibly Owned by Sir Henry Spelman and Ole Worm.” 55.3: (Sept. [“The article explores the probable provenance of MS 7 at Bridewell Library in Dallas, Texas. On neither approach does Wyclif ‘s theory of universals postulate new and non-standard entities besides those recognized by more usual versions of realism. [This book argues that documentary culture (including charters, testaments, patents and seals) enabled writers to think in new ways about the conditions of textual production in late Medieval England. Paul and Augustine, and he argued that it remained an essential component in the church’s discursive armoury against heresy. “Religious Authority and Dissent.” In Peter Brown, ed. Combining traditional approaches with innovative thinking on moral philosophy, devotional exercises, and theological doctrine, Pecock’s works of religious instruction are his attempt to reform a Christian community threatened by heresy through reshaping meaningful Christian practices and forms of belief. Chaucer realizes the self-promotional value in identifying with an emergent interpretive community of English translators, inclusive of the Wycliffites and Trevisa. Cole connects ecclesiastical interest in early humanism to changes in theological discourse during the fifteenth century, and hence to the bishops’ perception of Wycliffism.] —.”Staging Advice in Oxford, New College, MS 288: On Thomas Chaundler and Thomas Bekynton.” Gillespie and Ghosh 245-263. “Beyond Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy: A New Approach to Late Medieval Religious Reading.” Corbellini 33-54. “Il Discorso della montagna nella Biblia wycliffita e nel N. He appealed to the centuries-old position of the canonists that an heretical or simoniacal pope could be tried and deposed, but he so broadened the definition of heresy and simony as to make all but the most saintly popes liable to removal. [Levy studies the expanding notion of the literal sense of scripture in the later Middle Ages, especially its identification with the sense intended by its divine author, in the writings of five fourteenth- and fifteenth-century theologians: Richard Fitz Ralph, John Wyclif, Henry Totting de Oyta, Jean Gerson, and Paul of Burgos.] —. “The Doctrine of Transubstantiation from Berengar through the Council of Trent.” new ser. The author argues that in these devotional works (which appealed to a broad readership in late medieval England) Rolle successfully refines traditional affective strategies to develop an implied reader-identity, the individual soul seeking the love of God, which empowers each and every reader in his or her own spiritual journey.”] Mc Neill, John Thomas. Differences between heretic and orthodox believers; Factors attributed to the existence of heretics in the nation; Citation of vernacular books on heresy practices.”] Mc Veigh, T. “Chaucer’s Portraits of the Pardoner and Summoner and Wycliff’s 29 (1975): 54-58. “Die Sprache der Wyclif-Bibel: die Verwendung von Lehnwörtern in den Büchern Baruch, Richter und Hiob.” Diss. The plays take up a series of contests over who could legitimately determine the meaning of texts–men or women, clerics or laity, rulers or subjects, Christians or Jews–and transform these questions for audiences far beyond their original medieval academic contexts. “On the Trail of Wycliffite Discourse: Notes on the Relationship Between Language Use and Identity in the Wycliffite Sect.” . Phillips pays especial attention to Wycliffite and political registers in the . “The Social and Economic Spread of Rural Lollardy: A Reappraisal.” Sheils and Wood, 111-129. “The Social and Economic Status of Later Lollards.” Spufford 103-31. I will explore this ideological conflict through close readings of both Wycliffite texts and of the orthodox texts that responded to Wycliffism.”] Ransom, M. Wimpheling’s sensitivity regarding the persuasive value of dialectic is complemented by passages in Erasmus which emphasise continuity rather than conflict between the methods of argumentation used by patristic and medieval theologians in their encounters with heresy.] —. as Disputation.” Bergström-Allen and Copsey 233-448. [Noting that Netter follows a “pioneering approach” to commentary that relies on contextualizing patristic authorities, Bose also says that Netter “implicitly invites readers to check and appraise, rather than merely to simply endorse, his use of sources,” and thereby lays “the foundations of a more radical critical inquiry” (234). The fifth chapter studies Pecock’s views on the best way to educate the lay reader to ensure the most stability, spiritual profit, and harmony within the community, focusing on the way Pecock structures his works to facilitate the integration of various groups in the community through the progress and evolution of the lay reader.”] Campbell, Kirsty. Campbell’s book will be of interest to scholars and students of medieval literature and culture, especially those interested in fifteenth-century religious history and culture.”] Campi, Luigi. His doing so was a necessity: after all, if the surviving MSS are any indication, his 17 (2003): 25-54. [The essay describes a shift in the fifteenth century from the pastoral to the secular in the advice offered to bishops, creating “what might be called in some instances a ‘mirror for bishops’ tradition.” Cole addresses Wycliffite advice literature, claiming that it combines pastoral and secular advice traditions. It explores the sacrament of baptism and its association to orthodoxy, Wycliffism and sacramental utterance. “A Contextualized Wyclif: Magister Sacrae Paginae.” Bose and Hornbeck 121-134. Nissé focuses in particular on how theater translates the temporal ideas of textual exegesis into spatial models and politics. Binghamton: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1986. “The Chronology of Wyclif’s English Sermons.” 40 (2009): 387-410. [Discusses the development of medieval commentary about women’s preaching, some of which are contradictory, and how this influences depictions in saint’s lives and by Wycliffites.] Block, Edward A. “The Issue of Theological Style in Late Medieval Disputations.” 5 (2002): 1-21. Of special interest here is a chapter on the , he provocatively follows a line of reasoning instanced in multiple Wycliffite tracts on translation. Drawing on pedagogical theorists such as Freire and Giroux as well as a wealth of later medieval texts, Copeland shows how teachers radically transformed inherited ideas about classrooms and pedagogy as they brought their teaching to adult learners. “John Wyclif on Papal Election, Correction, and Deposition.” 69 (2007): 141-85. Because Holy Scripture formed, for Wyclif, the sole foundation of Christian society, it would fall to the magister sacrae paginae to render authoritative decisions on ecclesiastical governance” (141-42). Wyclif exercised his rights as a university master to dissent from ecclesiastical determinations that ran contrary to the truth as revealed in Scripture. “A Manuscript of the First Wycliffite Translation of the Bible.” . The English reformers, however, did more than merely reject Gregory as an authority. Peikola examines one form of tract, the catalogue, listing 22 different catalogues, discussing their structure, lexical markings, types, audiences, and their similarities to scholastic, judicial, and legislative textual practices. The major part of the article surveys variation in the form and content of the tables, serving the needs of genre description and paving the way for further textual scholarship (a preliminary list of the Wycliffite tables is presented in Appendix A). [One of several derivative biographies published on the quincentenary of Wyclif’s death. The volume includes a helpful index of “Churchwardens’ accounts before 1570.”] Peterson, Kate Oelzner. “Sowing Difficulty: The Parson’s Tale, Vernacular Commentary, and The Nature of Chaucerian Dissent.” 25 (2004): 299-330. Price and Ryrie attend to both stylistic and political arguments that arose over Biblical translation between the late fourteenth and early seventeenth centuries.] Pyper, Rachel. [Concludes that Chaucer uses the Wycliffite translation, but see also Holton, “Which Bible did Chaucer Use? When all the information on the movement which we possess, however, is brought together, one cannot but feel that they had a greater influence on their own time than has heretofore been allowed: Not only did the early reformers consider them very important, but today also, in spite of predilections for economic interpretations of history, they must be regarded as one of the important sources of the Scottish Reformation.”] Renna, Thomas. It contains chapters on “Wyclif and his Theology,” the “Early diffusion of Lollardy,” “Survival and Revival,” and “From Lollardy to Protestantism.” In the process, “whilst endorsing the traditional view that Lollardy was indeed the lay face of Wycliffism, . Far from being a Lollard minister, it suggests, Ramsbury was nothing but a confidence trickster. [This article emphasizes the awareness among some “humanists” and “scholastics” of the intrinsically persuasive qualities of much theological discourse (disputation in particular). Because many of the terms Chaucer uses in the Prologue are also central to the General Prologue to the Wycliffite Bible, Chaucer appears to respond to this particular text, which was probably read within his social circle, rich in opportunities to acquire such vernacular material. The pedagogical imperatives of Lollard dissent were also embodied in the work of certain public figures, intellectuals whose dissident careers transformed the social category of the medieval intellectual.] —. Levy here discusses Wyclif’s “view of the mechanics of papal election, correction, and deposition,” rather than topics such as civil dominion and kingship (141). In the process of the paper, Levy discusses the backgrounds behind these issues to place Wyclif’s views in context. “Holy Scripture and the Quest for Authority among Three Late Medieval Masters.” 61.1 (Jan. Netter and Gerson set out to curb this sort of magisterial excess which they believed would inevitably lead to the destruction of all proper norms of authority within the Church. [Levy’s book describes ways in which Scripture was argued to be the foundation for ecclesiastical authority between about 1370 to 1430. Instead of dismissing the old justification of images as a false sophism, as the continental reformers had done in the 1520s, they appropriated the laymen’s-book metaphor for their own polemic, turning it against the iconophiles. The catalogue is one apparent instance of the vernacularization of Latinate textual practice by Lollard writers.] —. The concluding discussion addresses the use of the tables from the point of view of readers of the Wycliffite Bible. For a contemporary review, see “Wiclif and his Works,” included below. “The Sources of the Parson’s Tale.” Radcliffe College Monographs 12. [This key article modified Skeat’s theory that the Tale was derived from Friar Loren’s to show that it was mostly derived from penitential treatises by Raymund of Pennaforte and Peraldus. [The Parson’s Tale is an odd combination of a subjective context framing incontrovertibly authoritative content. “Wycliffite Bibles as Orthodoxy.” Corbellini 71-91. ”, which argues against this theory.] Rankin, William Joseph. [From the abstract: “Although scholars have recently addressed the role of Wycliffism in the development of cultural and vernacular practice and in the sociopolitical climate of the later Middle Ages, few have attempted to view Wycliffite activity from the vantage of a cohesive ideological context. “Wyclif’s Attacks on the Monks.” Hudson and Wilks 267-80. The form of liturgy he admitted to celebrating was not a product of theological editing but the performance of the visible and audible parts of the mass, with those parts customarily unseen and unheard simply omitted for economy of effort.”] Rice, Nicole. [Rice examines a series of texts for religious guidance which were adapted for life outside of the cloister.